Understanding Exotic Currencies
Exotic currencies refer to those currencies or currency pairs that are not commonly traded due to their unique nature. This term often overlaps with emerging market currencies and pertains to more minor currency pairs characterized by limited liquidity.
This classification helps distinguish such currencies from the frequently traded and highly liquid significant currencies like the Euro and the US Dollar.
Unlike stock markets, where entities like MSCI classify countries such as ‘developed markets,’ ’emerging markets’, and ‘frontier markets,’ the currency market lacks a precise definition for ‘exotic’. However, exotic currency pairs generally fall within emerging and frontier markets, marked by limited liquidity and sparse trading.
Prominent Exotic Currency Pairs
Often, secondary pairs involving more minor emerging market currencies are deemed exotic. For instance, while some might consider the Turkish Lira or the Brazilian Real as minor pairs when paired with the US Dollar, a pair like the British Pound against such currencies, e.g., TRY/GBP, would likely be labeled as exotic.
Some of the notable exotic currency pairs in the forex market involve GBP and EUR paired with currencies like the TRY (Turkish Lira), SGD (Singapore Dollar), ZAR (South African Rand), and BRL (Brazilian Real).
On infrequent instances, lesser-known pairs from developed or European regions may be labeled as exotic. Commonly, currencies such as the SEK (Swedish Krona), NOK (Norwegian Krona), and DKK (Danish Krona) are grouped under ‘Scandinavian’. Conversely, pairs from emerging European markets excluding the EUR, like the CZK (Czech Krona) and PLN (Polish Zloty), are termed ‘exotic’.
Trade Dynamics of Exotic Currencies
Exotic currencies encompassing emerging and frontier markets are not frequently traded, resulting in lower liquidity than major global currencies.
Such pairs constitute a minimal fraction of daily trades in the global forex market. As per a 2016 survey by the BIS (Bank for International Settlements), the market is predominantly influenced by pairs involving USD, EUR, JPY, and GBP. It’s improbable that this dominance has shifted significantly since.
The limited trading volume of exotic currencies often increases transaction costs; broader bid-ask spreads, and heightened risks for those engaging in transactions with these currencies.
Challenges Associated with Exotic Currencies
Engaging in transactions with exotic currencies presents multiple challenges:
Lack of Liquidity
The limited trading volume and scarcity of trading partners make it challenging to conduct substantial trades in exotic currency pairs without notably influencing the market. The difference between buying and selling prices can be considerable, complicating the process of taking or closing a significant position. Furthermore, information about major transactions tends to spread rapidly in markets for less common currencies.
This limited liquidity can also pave the way for potential market manipulation, as observed with the ZAR/USD pair in 2017.
Owing to their restricted liquidity, exotic currency pairs tend to display more pronounced volatility compared to major pairs. Such volatility can lead to unforeseen shifts in prices, especially when influenced by major political occurrences or central bank declarations, regardless of their direct relevance to the currency. A case in point is the 2016 election of Donald Trump, which caused the Mexican Peso to drop significantly, losing over 12% of its value against the US Dollar.
Exotic currencies are generally associated with emerging or frontier markets, leading to heightened political uncertainties. These can encompass risks like sudden changes in exchange rates or unconventional monetary policies, potentially causing the currency’s value to drop. In extreme cases, a currency might become non-exchangeable overnight.
Trading Venues for Exotic Currencies
Most exotic currencies can be traded in global financial hubs such as London, Sydney, New York, Singapore, and Tokyo. These transactions occur across various time zones, barring instances where capital controls restrict offshore trading.
The foreign exchange market predominantly operates over the counter, meaning financial institutions, central banks, and brokerage firms engage in direct transactions or utilize electronic platforms to trade in less liquid pairs. Collaborating with a specialized service provider is advisable for smaller entities and individuals.
Hedging Approaches for Exotic Currencies
The primary hedging methods for both major and exotic currency pairs are spot transfers and forward contracts.
Spot hedging involves immediately purchasing and delivering the entire foreign currency amount.
In contrast, forward contracts lock in a predetermined exchange rate for a future date without immediately exchanging the principal amount. Once the contract term concludes, the resulting profit or loss is reconciled.